Native to the mountainous regions of Ethiopia, sensitive to heat and humidity, it grows at altitudes above 800 meters and the higher the elevation, the better the qualities of the coffee bean tend to be. Arabica coffee comprises a large number of varieties depending on where it is grown: different soils, altitudes, climates, etc. Some of them are typica or bourbon. We can say that its characteristics are much more familiar to the tastes of the vast majority of people, such as perfumed, sweet, citric, acidic and with great nuances of flavor, of nuts, delicate in texture and a pleasant bitter touch. It is grown in higher altitude terrain, being the collection much more expensive and its level of caffeine is lower. Arabica coffee is grown throughout Latin America, in Central and Eastern Africa, in India and a little in Indonesia.
Arabica coffee in Peru
Peru produces almost exclusively Arabica coffee, thanks to its geographical location and altitude of its tropical areas that ranges between 800 and 2500 masl on average, it is produced from the north, center and south of the country. Of which more than 70% is of the Typica variety, followed by Caturra (20%) and others (10%). The average density of plants on the farms is 2,000 coffee trees per hectare, although according to the growing regions, this figure can vary considerably. It is not surprising, either, that the coffee growers have mixed within their plots up to five different varieties that are practically all. Peruvian coffee is produced in 350,000 hectares of coffee plantations in 210 rural districts located in 10 departments on the eastern slope of the Andes, being the regions of Cajamarca, Amazonas, San Martín and Chanchamayo, the three main growing areas. This last territory, Chanchamayo (origin of coffee in Peru), has traditionally been the coffee region par excellence, however, in recent times there has been a change towards the northern highlands of the Cajamarca, Amazonas and San Martín regions . And so, although Chanchamayo still represents 16% of total production, Cajamarca, Amazonas and San Martín together now represent 51% of national production. As most of the cultivation areas, 75%, are concentrated between 1,000 and 1,800 meters above sea level, coffee production in the country is totally manual and the cherries are still picked, to a large extent, by hand and drying in the sun .
Some of the Arabica varieties
Arabian Coffee in Alto Cajamarca
100% of our coffee production in Alto Cajamarca is of the Arabica species, of which the varieties that we produce the most are Caturra, Bourbon and typica, thanks to its adaptability to our producing areas, in addition to its quality and consistency in cup . As mentioned above, arabic coffee is a species that is adapted to higher areas, the higher the area where it is produced, the arabic coffee will be denser, the drink will be sweeter and more complex in notes, since at higher altitude the maturation is slower and the concentration of the components is higher. It is worth emphasizing that the coffee farms of our producers are above 1700 masl. Another important fact about Arabica coffee is that at higher altitude, less prone to diseases.
As we already mentioned, arabic coffee is a species with a great diversity of attributes, approximately 1000, which we can appreciate from fragrance, aroma and flavor: attributes such as citrus, herbal, fruit, chocolate, caramel, etc. Those attributes that generally appeal to the vast majority of people in the world make this species the most produced and commercialized coffee in the world. And as we already mentioned, I believe in the high tropic zones, like in our area, San José de Lourdes, Chirinos, La Coipa and others.
Some physical traits of Arabica Coffee:
- Golden brown (green coffee) have a greenish hue.
- Arabicas are flatter and elongated (although there are exceptions).
- Arabica coffee beans are larger.
Taste is something very personal and currently the market offers us coffees that are rich enough and different in variety, mix, roast and freshness for every palate and pocket. There is much to experience, taste and discover in the world of coffee.